Dost thou love life?

Then do not squander time,

for that is the stuff life is made of.

-Benjamin Franklin

Allegory - narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait and attempt to convey some larger lesson or meaning to life. Although allegory was originally and traditionally character based, modern allegories tend to parallel story and theme.

Character - representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally human activities or functions in a work of fiction

Protagonist - The character the story revolves around.

Antagonist - A character or force that opposes the protagonist.

Minor character - Often provides support and illuminates the protagonist.

Static character - A character that remains the same.

Dynamic character - A character that changes in some important way.

Characterization - The choices an author makes to reveal a character’s personality, such as appearance, actions, dialogue, and motivations. 

Connotation - implied meaning of word. BEWARE! Connotations can change over time.

Denotation - dictionary definition of a word

Figurative Language - the use of words to express meaning beyond the literal meaning of the words themselves

Metaphor - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme without using like or as 
You are the sunshine of my life.

Simile: "You are like a flower."
Metaphor: "You are my flower."

Simile - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme using like or as.

Hyperbole - exaggeration
I have a million things to do today.

Personification - giving non-human objects human characteristics
America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces with the British.

Imagery - the author’s attempt to create a mental picture (or reference point) in the mind of the reader. Remember, though the most immediate forms of imagery are visual, strong and effective imagery can be used to invoke an emotional, sensational (taste, touch, smell etc) or even physical response.

Symbolism - when an object is meant to be representative of something or an idea greater than the object itself.

Tone - the implied attitude towards the subject of the poem.

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